Artifacts: Artifacts are things people made or used which have survived the passage of time.


Earthworks: American Indians built the mounds, embankment, circle, and rings at Marksville using nearby soils. Since these things are made of earth, they are called earthworks.


Features: Unlike artifacts, features are not portable. They are generally part of a site and include things like buried garbage pits, hearths, burials and the remains of earthen walls. Archaeologists usually recognize features in the soil because they "cut" into or intrude upon the color, texture, or contents of the existing soil.


Hopewell Culture: Hopewell people did not share a single culture. Rather, they had a common set of beliefs that was carried to other people through trade and travel. Each group chose what Hopewell beliefs to adopt and how they would be expressed in their culture. The area of trade and shared beliefs is called the Hopewell Interaction Sphere. The sphere stretched in the U.S. from Minnesota to Florida and from New York to Kansas City and Louisiana. Hopewell sites often have earthworks, burials in mounds, stone brought from far away and distinctive styles of artifacts, like pottery. At Marksville, people adopted Hopewell earthworks, burial customs, and some artifacts, but did not choose to trade many materials.


Middle Woodland Period: (A.D. 1 – A.D. 400) This period saw a rise in population and an expansion of Hopewell traditions. At this time, some people could also be born into, or gain, more social or political power than others. Some people, who may have been leaders, had special burials.

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