Life on the Frontier
The Presidio
The Governor's House
A Military Outpost
Farming and Ranching
Religious Life
Domestic Life
Games and Entertainment
The King's Highway
Trade with the French
Trade with the Caddo
Trade with the Caddo
The Caddo Indians lived near the mission and presidio, but few actually lived at the presidio. Nevertheless, their artifacts are abundant at the site. In fact, of all the ceramics at Los Adaes, 85% are Native American. Most of the Indian pottery fragments are probably from containers for transporting corn, beans, and other foods acquired from the Indians. A few Indian ceramic pieces are made in the style of European plates, bowls, or pitchers. The Spanish people at the presidio and mission traded glass beads, cloth, metal tools, and other European goods to the Indians.
European-style plate made by a Caddo artisanTrade beadsTinkler cone and cut metal Decorated pottery fragment
19th century image of a Caddo chief 
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Spanish Trade Goods
The list of goods the Spanish traded to the Indians in 1782 and the rates of exchange for them give an idea of what the Indians wanted from the Spanish.

merchandise (orignal description) = number of deerskins
5 Ball shot with its gunpowder (Balas con su Polvora) = 1 deerskin
1 Belt knife (Belduque) = 2 deerskins
1 Folding knife (Navaja) = 1 deerskin
1 Strike-a-light (Eslavón) = 1 deerskin
10 Hanks of beads (Ylos de Cuentas) = 1 deerskin
2 Awls (Alesnas) = 1 deerskin
1 Axe (Acha) = 8 deerskins
1 Hoe (Azadón) = 8 deerskins
1 Hatchet (Achita) = 5 deerskins
1 Wadhook, wormer (Saca-Tropas) = 1 deerskin
1 Vermilion paper (papel de vermellon) = 1 deerskin
1 Bundle of tobacco (Manojo de Tabaco) = 6 deerskins
1 Large bell (Cascavel grande) = 6 deerskins
6 Small bells (Chicos idem) = 1 deerskin
6 gunflints (piedras de Fucil) = 1 deerskin
1 Musket (Fucil) = 30 deerskins
1 1/3 “yards” of cloth (Vara y 1/3 de Paño) = 20 deerskins
1 metal bracelet (Braceleta de metal) = 1 deerskin
1 “yard” of fine wire (Vara de alambre fina) = 1 deerskin
1 trade shirt (Camisa de Treta) = 8 deerskins
1/3 “yards” of textured(?) ribbon (Vara y 1/3 de cinta Encarrada) = 1 deerskin
1 lance (Lanza) = 10 deerskins

(This document was transcribed by students of Herbert Bolton. The original document is located in the Archivo General de la Nación, in Mexico City, and the title is "Report on the abandonment of the settlement and settlers of Nuestra Señora del Pilar de Bucareli and the establishment of commerce with the Indios Gentiles del Norte", volume 51, 1778-1780, 1780-1781. A Photostat of the transcription is located in the Catholic Archives of Texas, 29.7b:664-665.) See McDonald, Dedra S. and Kinga Perzynska, 1994. Guide to the Spanish and Mexican Collection at the Catholic Archives of Texas. Catholic Archives of Texas, Austin.
Suggested Reading
Dickinson, Samuel Dorris 1982 New Travels in North America by Jean-Bernard Bossu, 1770-1771. Northwestern State University Press, Natchitoches, Louisiana.

LaVere, David 1998 The Caddo Chiefdoms. Caddo Economic and Politics, 700-1835. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.